Periodontics deals with the treatment of diseases of the teeth support system, mainly gingivitis and various forms of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is a general problem affecting a large part of the population, which is why the approach for its’ management should be detailed, long-term, educative and preventive.
In a healthy jawbone the root of the tooth is completely “anchored” to the bone and connected to it with supporting fibers (the periodontium). There is a difference between the inflammation of the gum tissue (gingivitis), and the inflammation of the entire supporting and surrounding teeth tissue (periodontitis). Gingivitis is characterized by swollen, intensively red gums, that tend to bleed. It is easily treated with professional teeth cleaning in the dental medicine doctor’s office and optimal daily teeth care.
An unattended gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. Because of the inflammation, gums swell and separate from the teeth surface. This leads to the creation of pockets that favor the growth and propagation of bacteria. The surrounding tissue reacts to bacteria and their harmful products with an inflammation. The consequence of an inflammation is the disintegration of the supporting tooth tissue including also the bone. Often, the progress of periodontal disease is weak in symptoms. With time, however, the inflammatory osseodisintegration may lead to loosen teeth as well as loss of teeth.
Periodontal pockets curettage
Under local anesthesia, the roots of the teeth are cleaned from the bacteria and harmful deposits build up. 3D bacteria formation are so well organized and protected by a biofilm, that antibiotics should be taken in a 1000 x stronger dosage concentration in order to be effective.
Pockets are cleaned with a combination of surgical and so-called ultrasonic instruments, enabling the surface of the root to remain smooth. With the elimination of deposits the deterioration of tissue is stopped, and the pocket depth reduced. In shallow pockets, conditions for the growth of bacteria are not that good, improving overall periodontal health.
With healthy teeth or those affected by periodontal disease the mouth cavity is full of bacteria. Patients that suffer from periodontal diseases have a genetic tendency to an infectious overreaction to bacteria. Even if it would be theoretically possible to eliminate all bacteria, very soon a re-colonization would take place as well as a consequential inflammatory reaction. This means, that there is no successful one-time treatment for periodontal disease, although some dental office Internet pages claim otherwise. A periodontal disease is a chronic infection that needs to be controlled throughout ones life and when needed interventions should be made. The frequency of control visits depends on the degree of the disease as well as on the patient’s oral hygiene, and is thus determined individually (usually 2-4 times a year).